Prostanoid Receptors

In earlier studies by Raut (the north Indian vector for BTV) during the rainy season overlaps with the spread of BTV in northern India

In earlier studies by Raut (the north Indian vector for BTV) during the rainy season overlaps with the spread of BTV in northern India. between 72-77% and 90-94% for cattle and buffalo, respectively. In buffaloes, the BTV seroprevalence was comparatively higher than in cattle. Conclusion: The study showed that BTV is circulating in cattle and buffalo populations in the Northern part of India. in the family [1,2]. The disease is characterized by fever, facial edema, hemorrhages, and ulceration on the oral mucosa and coronitis. Cattle and buffaloes are sub-clinically affected and are carriers of BTV. Even though this true for many strains of the virus, however, during the European outbreak of BT caused by BTV-8 in 2006, the cattle were severely affected [3]. The clinical signs in BTV-8 affected sheep flocks and cattle herds in 2007 and 2006 were similar. BTV is not contagious, and it is transmitted by vector midges [4,5]. In India, the disease is endemic particularly in Southern states namely, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh. To date, 27 serotypes of this virus have been reported worldwide; however, there are further putative serotypes reported recently [6-10]. There is a low level of cross-protection among different serotypes, thus creating difficulties when designing of vaccines, vaccination strategies, and planning control Paritaprevir (ABT-450) measures [11]. Fifteen BTV serotypes have been isolated in India (BTV-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -8, -9, -10, -12, -16, -17, -18, -21, -23, and -24), eleven of these in the past decade, with serological evidence of presence of eight more (BTV-6, -7, -11, -13, -14, -15, -19, and -20) [12]. BT outbreaks result in an estimated 3 billion USD/annum losses across the globe, both directly and indirectly [13,14]. Although there are no precise figures for economic losses due to BT in India, a study published in 2009 2009 assessed the economic losses due to important diseases of sheep in India between 1991 and 2005, and BT was found to cause more economic devastation than foot and mouth disease (FMD), peste des petits ruminants, sheep and goat pox, anthrax, fascioliasis/distomatosis, and enterotoxemia [15]. The greatest direct losses to farmers due to BT occurred in 2005, amounting to approximately 231 million rupees [16]. Direct losses are a result of mortality and decline in production of affected animals. Indirect losses are due to trade embargoes and animal movement restrictions [1]. Due to its huge economic importance, it is paramount to detect BTV infection both in endemic and BTV-free countries. Complement fixation test, agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) are the OIE recommended methods for BT Paritaprevir (ABT-450) testing for international trade [17]. Of these 3 tests, the c-ELISA has proven to be highly sensitive. It can be used to detect antibodies raised against all BTV serotypes [15]. The specificity of this test is due to the use of monoclonal anti-VP7 which can distinguish the BT serogroup from MYH11 other orbivirus serogroups, for example, epizootic Paritaprevir (ABT-450) hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) [18-20]. It has been found that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of c-ELISA is 87.8% (85.10-91.10) and 98.2% (96.30-99.60), respectively [21]. Therefore, the antibody detecting VP7-based c-ELISA was employed in this Paritaprevir (ABT-450) study to determine the seroprevalence of BTV in Haryana state of India. In India, a few studies have been conducted on seroprevalence of BT, but their results do not have much significance due to testing of less/small number of samples. This is the first substantive seroprevalence study of BT in Haryana state based on random sampling and testing of a large number of serum samples from cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods Ethical Paritaprevir (ABT-450) approval Ethical approval from Institutional Animal Ethics Committee was not required as no part of research had been carried out in live laboratory or domestic animals. Animals The blood samples were collected from 803 animals (cattle and buffaloes) from 80 villages of 21 district of Haryana. The details of animals are given inTable-1. Table-1 Details of animals from which samples were collected. like EHDV. The use of monoclonal antibodies against BTV group-specific protein VP7 in c-ELISA can overcome this problem [26]. The serological response in BTV infection appears usually 7-14 days post-infection, and antibodies are generally long-lasting. In India, the occurrence of BT between different parts of the country is dependent.

Share this post