[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]Crowell EF, Bischoff V, Desprez T, Rolland A, Stierhof Y-D, Schumacher K, Gonneau M, H?fte H, Vernhettes S. system to modulate the levels of heterodimeric capping protein (CP) and examine the consequences for actin dynamics, architecture, and cell expansion. Significantly, we find that all phenotypes are the opposite for OX lines have fewer filamentCfilament annealing events, as well as reduced filament lengths and lifetimes. Further, OX lines have shorter cells. On the basis of these and other genetic studies in this model system, we hypothesize that filament length and lifetime positively correlate with the extent of NSC-23026 axial cell expansion in dark-grown hypocotyls. INTRODUCTION The rapid turnover of actin filaments and remodeling of actin arrays are precisely regulated in eukaryotic cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the construction of specific actin arrays in vivo remain under active investigation. Illuminating actin organization with molecular precision requires fast and high-resolution imaging systems. Variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM) permits imaging at excellent signal to noise ratio of the cortical cytoplasm (Konopka and Bednarek, 2008 ) and has been used to generate analyses at high spatial and temporal resolution of individual actin filaments in living plant cells (Staiger seedlings expressing the NSC-23026 green fluorescent protein (GFP)CfABD2 reporter provide a facile model system to explore the mechanism of cytoskeletal turnover. NSC-23026 In the dark-grown hypocotyl, which expands predominantly by cell elongation (Gendreau epidermal cells occurs through a combination of rapid filament elongation at barbed ends and filament disassembly through NSC-23026 prolific severing activity (Staiger epidermal cells, new growing ends originate from three locations: de novo in the cytoplasm, from the side of existing filaments, or at the ends of preexisting fragments (Staiger also binds to the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA; Huang cells with enhanced CP expression, but the amount of filamentous actin and cell growth are similar to those in wild-type cells (Hug epidermal cells. Our data provide a broader and deeper understanding of how barbed-end regulation contributes to actin filament turnover and actin array dynamics. Significantly, enhancing and inhibiting actin dynamic turnover has opposite effects on axial cell expansion in plants. RESULTS Organ and cell expansions are influenced by CP levels We showed previously that reducing CP levels resulted in excess elongation of hypocotyls and epidermal cells (Li expression levels by stable integration of both and under the control of the promoter. A homozygous knockdown mutant, and were considerably increased (unpublished data). Thus we selected three independent lines (OX1C3) with increased transcript levels for further experiments (Figure?1A). Mouse monoclonal to Neuropilin and tolloid-like protein 1 In the mutant, transcript levels for both subunits were decreased approximately twofold compared with wild-type seedlings, which was consistent with previous results (Figure?1A; Li OX lines. Moreover, the observation that individual lines had increasing amounts of transcript, with OX1 OX2 OX3, also held true at the protein level. In contrast, the mutant and and transcript levels in 10-d-old, dark-grown seedlings from homozygous mutant seedlings and three independent OX1C3). Col-0 wild-type (WT) seedlings were used as a control. (B) Western blot analysis of CP protein levels in WT, mutant, and OX1C3 lines using anti-CPA and -CPB antibodies (Huang mutant had less CP protein expression than did WT. Blots are from one representative experiment. Recombinant CP (rCP) was included as a positive control and anti-PEPC antibody used as a loading control. (C) Protein levels in each genotype were measured quantitatively by densitometric analysis and plotted as fold induction compared with wild-type samples. Values are means SE from five biological replicates. When grown under continuous dark conditions, mutant seedlings exhibited longer hypocotyls than wild-type seedlings (Figure?2A; Li OX lines showed strongly reduced hypocotyl lengths compared with wild-type and mutant seedlings (Figure?2A). The differences between genotypes were significant throughout the developmental time period (Figure?2B). Of note, the extent of phenotypic defects in hypocotyl elongation correlated with CP level; specifically, the more transcript and protein present, the stronger was the growth-inhibition phenotype. To examine whether the differences in hypocotyl length resulted from defects in cell expansion, we measured epidermal cell length and width for all genotypes. The mutant had significantly longer cells in.