In addition, of these 24 CBs, 3 CBs, i

In addition, of these 24 CBs, 3 CBs, i.e., FGA, IGHM and PRG4, were replicated with consistent regulation in at least three impartial cohorts. proteomic studies in GDM now exist, a lack of a comprehensive and up-to-date meta-analysis makes it difficult for researchers to interpret the data in the existing literature. Thus, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on proteomic studies and GDM. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus from inception to January 2022. We searched Medline, Embase, CINHAL and the Cochrane Library, which were searched from inception to February 2021. We included cohort, case-control and observational studies reporting original data investigating the development of GDM compared to a control group. Two impartial reviewers selected eligible studies for meta-analysis. Data collection and analyses were performed by two impartial reviewers. The PROSPERO registration number is usually Antimonyl potassium tartrate trihydrate CRD42020185951. Of 120 articles retrieved, 24 studies met the eligibility criteria, comparing a total of 1779 pregnant women (904 GDM and 875 controls). A total of 262 GDM candidate biomarkers (CBs) were identified, with 49 CBs reported in at least two studies. We found 22 highly replicable CBs that were significantly different (nine CBs were upregulated and 12 CBs downregulated) between women with GDM and controls across various proteomic platforms, sample types, blood fractions and time of blood collection and continents. We performed further analyses on blood (plasma/serum) CBs in early pregnancy (first and/or early second trimester) and included studies with more than nine samples (nine studies in total). We found that 11 CBs were significantly upregulated, and 13 CBs significantly downregulated in women with GDM compared to controls. Subsequent pathway analysis using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) bioinformatics resources found that these CBs were most strongly linked to pathways related to complement and coagulation cascades. Our findings provide important insights and form a strong foundation for future validation studies to establish reliable biomarkers for GDM. 0.05, we set the = 14), Europe (= 6), North America (= 3) and Australia (= 1). Whilst 11 studies utilized plasma samples, 7 studies utilized serum, and 6 studies utilized other samples, i.e., urine (= 1), amniotic fluid (= 1), rectus abdominus skeletal muscle tissue (= 1), placenta villi (= 1), omental adipose tissue (= 1) and urine exosomes (= 1). Furthermore, 11 studies performed sample collection for proteomic analyses during the second trimester of pregnancy, 4 studies during the first trimester of pregnancy, 1 study during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, 1 study during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and 7 studies did not provide data on when the samples were collected. 3.2. Quality and Risk of Bias Assessment Supplementary Table S3 shows the quality assessment using the NewcastleCOttawa Scale (NOS) for all those included studies. All 24 included studies showed good quality and low risk of bias, with four stars in the selection domain, one or two stars in the comparability domain name, and three stars in the outcome/exposure domain name (Total NOS score Antimonyl potassium tartrate trihydrate 8 or 9). Therefore, all 24 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. A total of 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis. 3.3. Replicability COPB2 of CBs The replicability of CBs was assessed across different cohorts. Amongst the 24 included studies, Antimonyl potassium tartrate trihydrate two studies shared the same cohort after clarification from the authors [40,41]. The total cohorts were thus reduced to 23 impartial cohorts [42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62]. Supplementary Table S4 shows the replicability of 262 CBs across the 23 impartial cohorts. The.

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