We used an anti-cat conjugate (anti-cat (goat) IgG (H&L) peroxidase (#102-035-003; Dianova, Hamburg, Germany) for all Feliformia species including both hyena species. understand the sylvatic cycle and the clear role of wildlife in the epidemiology of these parasites in southern Africa. and is high in Africa , although complete information on the parasites and their epidemiology, particularly the sylvatic cycle, is not fully understood. Wildlife species may act as an important reservoir for parasites that can potentially infect livestock and humans, but are also sentinels for evaluating the circulation of the parasites in the environment. is an obligate intracellular protozoan, spread worldwide in many domestic and wild carnivore and herbivore species and may cause multisystemic diseases in endotherms . For carnivores and omnivores, including humans, infection with predominantly occurs ingestion of raw meat containing encysted bradyzoites, while for all host species transmission also occurs transplacentally or ingestion of water, feces or vegetation contaminated with sporulated oocysts derived from felid feces . Many warm-blooded animals can serve as intermediate hosts, CGS 21680 HCl wherein the asexual cycle takes place . In contrast, sexual reproduction of is limited to the definitive hosts, i.e. the domestic cat (life-cycle in southern Africa. The high density of wild and domestic animals in Africa living sympatrically and the lack of a clear spatial separation between livestock and wildlife might also result in a high pathogen transmission between wild animals, livestock and humans . and are closely related to is an obligate intracellular parasite that forms tissue cysts in its intermediate hosts, represented by both domestic and free-ranging herbivores . The only known definitive hosts of are canids such as domestic dogs (can be transmitted to definitive hosts by ingestion of raw tissues infected with the parasite, CGS 21680 HCl to intermediate and definitive hosts by ingestion of water or food containing sporulated oocysts and particularly in intermediate hosts also transplacentally . The economic losses to dairy and beef industries due to infections are substantial , CGS 21680 HCl due to abortions and neonatal mortality caused by the parasite. Neosporosis may also affect wildlife but its importance as an abortifacient?in wild animals is not yet clear [7, 15C17]. For the African continent, few studies have been carried out in domestic or wildlife species, thus knowledge on the host range of is lacking, though it is expected to be high due to both the diversity of potential hosts and the cattle herding in many regions. is also an economically important cyst-forming parasite, known to affect cattle in southern Africa and currently emerging in Europe [6, 18, 19]. The severe economic losses experienced are due to weight loss, a decrease in milk production, abortion, infertility and reduced value of hides for leather production . Most likely the life-cycle of this parasite is similar to and is unknown, there is a limited understanding on the routes of transmission [20, 21]. Currently, data on the host range for and in African regions is limited. Thus, the first objective of this study was to identify the host range of these apicomplexan parasites using serological tests that demonstrate the circulation of the parasites in various African wildlife species. The CGS 21680 HCl second objective was to identify intrinsic (age class, sex and sociality) and extrinsic (presence/absence of humans and domestic animals) risk factors for apicomplexan seroprevalence. For cheetahs and leopards, we had sufficient life-history information to investigate these factors in more detail. Since carnivores are mainly infected by ingestion of infected intermediate hosts, and the chance to have acquired infection with a particular pathogen rises during life, seropositivity should increase with age as shown for domestic cats [22C24]. As a result, we predicted an increased seroprevalence in adult leopards and cheetahs than in subadults. The chance to ingest contaminated material may be very similar for men and women or solitary pets and pets in groups, hence we expected that sex and sociality usually do not impact the known ETV4 degree of seroprevalence to in cheetahs and leopards. Since domestic cats will be the main reservoir of and occur in good sized quantities in some certain specific areas.